Tuesday, March 6, 2018

Module 5: TPACK Makes a Difference.

Used w/permission from tpack.org - rights free

Learning is about more than content or pedagogy or technology.  It involves the uniting of these forces to create a learning experience where content knowledge is presented through technology using a pedagogy that best fits the subject matter.

As if this wasn't enough to boggle an educator's mind, the context within which it is being taught must also be considered.  It is this context that determines relevancy to the student.

This is called TPaCK. TPaCK stands for:
  • Technology
  • Pedagogy
  • Content Knowledge
Understanding the Premise: This approach derives from Lee Shulman's work in the 80s when he introduced the notion of Pedagogical Content Knowledge (PCK).  Shulman (1986) says "pedagogical content knowledge is of special interest because it identifies the distinctive bodies of knowledge for teaching. It represents the blending of content and pedagogy into an understanding of how particular topics, problems, or issues are organized, represented, and adapted to the diverse interests and abilities of learners, and presented for instruction" (p. 8).

Pedagogic Content Knowledge by Dr. B -   A good way to learn about PCK is through Dr. Bilash's website. Review her work and watch her two short videos to see the connection between Pedagogy and Content Knowledge.  This may seem simple, but acknowledging the differences in the way a teacher understands content compared to a content expert is revealing.

Adding Technology to the PaCK: Acknowledging the connection between pedagogy and content knowledge, it is time to consider the medium through which this adapted content is presented/experienced. This medium is technology in the broadest sense of the word.  It doesn't have to "plug in." The best way to experience a Van Gogh painting is in the Musee de Orsay museum in Paris. If you happen to be visiting Paris sometime soon, that might be possible. If your future plans involve staying around the house a little more, then there are other avenues available to you. This is where you can use various forms of technology to fill the bill. You could enjoy Van Gogh's The Church in Auvers-sur-Oise through a Post-Impressionism book,  a Jigsaw Puzzlea 360-degree Panorama inside the church, or even Wikipedia.

Whatever technology you select, it is the intersection of Pedagogy, Content Knowledge and Technology within a Context that will carry the message for the learner. It will determine the topic's relevance to the learner and ultimately learners' interest in remembering and using the new information.   

The key to the TPaCK method is examining the intersections between the domains. This would include Pedagogy-Content (PC), Technology-Content Knowledge (TC) and Technology-Pedagogy (TP). The most important point is the intersection of all of the domains TPC which we find at the middle of a 3-circle Venn diagram.

This Low-Tech video explanation by RoyceKimmons is quite informative. He uses the 3-circle venn diagram to explain the relations of these domains.

 Here is another video to help reinforce the concept.
The best place to find out about TPaCK is at tpack.org   This is an ever-growing website that contains a plethora of possible resources.

Is Technology Really All Important?
There are three parts to the TPACK model. Mishra, Koehler and Kereluik point out that while technologies change, the song remains the same.  What is it that prevents technology from changing education? Is it the technology or the educators' preference for doing things to sustain the status quo instead of making a difference?

Applying TPaCK to My Curriculum

This theory is just great, but what about practical application?  I can't get my head around how to make this happen in my classroom.  I understand that I must teach World War II events using a pedagogy that is relevant to my population of students and that it should be conveyed using technology that is meaningful and engaging with my students.  But is there a formula?                 Probably not!

Here are the musings of Mark Fijor, a technology coordinator in Chicago.  He does a good job of examining TPACK from a practical classroom and school district point of view.  As you read these postings, think of how these ideas have, are or might be integrated into your teaching situation. If you don't have a classroom consider how this can fit into a higher-education or corporate setting or retirement home setting - CONTEXTUALIZE.
  1. TPACK and Systemic Technology Integration
  2. TPACK and Systemic Technology Integration - Part Two
  3. TPACK and Systemic Integration - Focus Tools 
  4. TPACK and Systemic Integration - Affordances and Constraints
  5. TPACK and Systemic Integration - The Four C's of Tech Integration

Curriculum-Based Activity Types

Fijor uses the "electric drill" analogy. He also introduces Activity Types. Activity Types are the practical applications of the theoretical TPACK. They have been developed by a group of researchers including Judi Harris, Mark Hofer, Denise Schmidt and Ann Thompson.  

Activity Types are conceptual planning tools that assist educators in organizing and creating curriculum-based learning activities. Each activity type captures what is most essential about the structure of a particular kind of learning action as it relates to what students do when engaged in that particular learning-related activity (e.g., group discussion; role play; fieldtrip). They have been organized by placing them in taxonomies.

TPACK Taxonomies
Dr. Judi Harris and Mark Hofer wrote a series of articles about using their subject-based taxonomies for TPACKING classroom projects Learning and Leading with Technology.  (It is actually pgs 22 - 34.)

Harris, J., & Hofer, M. (2009). “Grounded” technology integration: Planning with curriculum-based learning activity types. Learning & Leading With Technology, 37(2), 22-25.

You can find a succinct table of the Activity Types arranged by Format of Expression in an article entitled:

Instructional Planning Activity Types as Vehicles for Curriculum-Based TPACK Development (.pdf)
More Specifically: The hierarchies used for 7 different subject areas are found on the William and Mary School of Education Activity Types wiki.  

Here is an example of how these activities have been used with a grammar lesson:

Using TPaCK to Teach Grammar in Middle School

Playing the TPACK GAME

The TPACK Game involves simulating the thought process that a typical teacher has to experience when s/he is making decisions about content, pedagogy and technology choices. It involves randomly selecting two of the choices and then making informed decisions about the third choice.  This would mean that if you are provided with the content and the pedagogy to use, you must make an informed decision about which technology to use.  

This game is usually played with game cards in a classroom.  Since this course is online, it is not possible to use this format.  We will use an online format, but first - let's have Lisa Hervey demonstrate how you can play the TPACK game using cups . . .

For our purposes, I have created a spreadsheet (The Ultimate TPACK Game) with the terms that were on the TPACK cards and more. There is a built-in random number generator that you can use to select the Content Topics and Pedagogical Strategies at random so that you can identify a form of technology to use to achieve the Ultimate TPACK. (Read the Directions)


Play this game to develop at least 5 TPACK sets.  Before you create your lesson, you will be asked to list these 5 TPACK sets and explain the rational for your selections.

Refining Your Thought Process for Developing a TPACK Lesson
Creating a TPACK Lesson may not be as simple as a typical lesson plan.  You need to make multiple decisions based upon the steps that you read in Harris and Hofer's Grounded article.   You need to consider your:
  • Goals
  • Pedagogy
  • Activity Types
  • Assessment Strategies and
  • Tools/Resources
Here is an instructional document entitled 5 Steps to Lesson Planning Using TPACK that can guide you in making those decisions.  The decision types are listed in the upper row and the links are in the bottom row. (some of the links on the 5 Steps page don't work.  Use it as guidance.)

How to Create Your TPACK Lesson

Before you begin developing your lesson plan (in pairs or teams) using the lesson plan format identified in the Module 5 TPACK Lesson Instructions, Read the 5 Steps document COMPLETELY. Reading the 8 corresponding Continua is EXCEPTIONALLY important to understand the process. This is a document written by Harris and Hoefer and it is quite useful in explaining the process.

You might want to visit the WikiBook: TPACKing for a Wonderful Educational Trip  Dr. Z's students in the past (2012 & 2014) created a WikiBook to share lessons that they created using TPACK.  This is different than what we will be doing this semester, but they did some impressive work with TPACK.

TPACK Lesson Plan Template 

Happy Traveling through TPACK.


Tuesday, February 20, 2018

Module 4: Digital Citizenship

What is Digital Citizenship? 

Being a digital citizen raises the responsibility level for everyone involved.  Watch this introductory video to begin to develop a background in digital citizenship.

Children who are on the web need to be careful about who they meet, how they meet them and what they share.

Parents need to make students aware of the dangers that lurk on the web as well as share with them the wealth of information that is theirs for the taking.

Teachers need to incorporate Internet safety into their curriculum and make it part of their everyday program.

Here are some resources for learning about Digital Citizenship:

Common Sense Media
This is a great resource for all sorts of media on-line and off.

How Do I Help My Child Learn to Use the Internet Wisely?

Blog posting of resources collected by a teacher.

You have an opportunity to explore and plan a digital citizenship program for your school. It is not just for your students. It is one that will include your colleagues, your students, AND their parents.

The intent of this project is to create something that will be applicable to your existing teaching/training situation or might be used when you have your own teaching/training environment.

Begin by going to CommonSenseMedia.org and register as a member.

You will notice that Common Sense Media is more than just curriculum for teaching internet safety.  You will find that they like to share their opinion on things like movies, games, websites, and apps through their Ratings and Reviews section.  Look at all of the tools that are available in the Common Sense toolbar. Explore this section and consider how you would actively integrate it into Professional Development for Parents and Teachers.

Review the overall mission and opportunities available through CommonSenseMedia.org. Click on the Digital Literacy and Citizenship Curriculum Training Link in the Online Training section.  This page will provide you with an overview of the curriculum, an intro to the parent education modules, and finally an on-line training about teaching students called Raising Kids in Our Digital Media World.

You are change agents in your schools and training institutions.  You are making a difference by making informed choices and recommendations about building a safe educational learning environment.  Become familiar with online resources such as the Common Sense Media.  
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Tuesday, February 6, 2018

Module 3: Integrating Digital Technology

Integrating digital technologies into your curriculum is much more than just adding a computer to the lesson. Technology must be considered as a tool that will support learning experiences. It must be selected based upon pedagogical needs rather than the other way around.

Effective learning involves challenging learners with situations that are relevant to their lives and are challenging enough to interest them and engage them in the learning process. When educators discuss levels of intellectual challenge, they typically compare higher-order thinking to lower-order thinking.  These terms are best described by using Bloom's Taxonomy.

Thinking Blooms
Bloom's Taxonomy was first published in 1954 when Benjamin Bloom and his colleagues wanted to create a hierarchy of terms that they could use when they were describing various types of questions that they might use on a test.  Since then, the taxonomy has taken on a broader meaning which educators used to also describe educational activities.

Kathy Schrock is an educator who is a pioneer educator who has been enhancing learning through technology from the very beginning. Visit her Kathy Schrock's Guide to Everything site for ANYTHING on tech integration.  More specifically, she has modernized Bloom's taxonomy by aligning it with apps. Take a look at her Bloomin' Apps page for a plethora of possibilities when it comes to supporting learning through technology.  

Is there any sense in classifying teaching strategies, questions, Web tools using an organizer like Bloom's Taxonomy? Can pedagogical activities actually be restricted to one of 6 classifications? Probably not. Grouping tools like these are designed to provide vocabulary for discussions between professionals.  Using these classifications we can distinguish teaching for memorization or developing problem-solving skills.

Adding Technology to the Mix
Technology can be used in a learning environment but will it make a difference? It all depends on HOW technology is used. Like Bloom's Taxonomy, technology can be integrated in a variety of ways. These may include teachers who operate at a basic level by using PowerPoint presentations to support their lecture-driven methods. They also include the teachers who step back and encourage students to use these tools in innovative ways to create new projects and experiences.

The problem has been to find a vocabulary to define these various levels of integration.  Apple Computer sponsored a decade-long research project entitled Apple Classrooms of the Tomorrow (ACOT). This project involved providing technology-rich classrooms by filling them with Apple IIgs computers AND providing one for each of the students' homes (20th century 1:1 computing.)  As they examined the various levels on which teachers used technology, they identified a 5 stages including: Entry, Adoption, Adaption, Appropriation, and Innovation. You might want to refer to this article by Debra Rain.  It is from the 90s but it shows how Apple unveiled the various levels of learning with technology, What is Effective Integration of Technology, and Does It Make a Difference. Please note that these levels of adoption exist in any teaching/learning situation whether it is in corporate, PK-12 or post-secondary settings.

SAMR -  Substitute/Augment/Modify/Redefine
Another model that is popular in the schools today is the SAMR model. It was developed by Ruben R. Puentedura, Ph.D. to describe a ladder of implementation that occurs as you integrate technology into your curriculum. 

Here is a Lynda Tutorial that describes the four levels of SAMR:

Did it make sense?  Would you be able to identify and define the 4 levels of SAMR?

Visit this Sophia.org website to review SAMR and take a quiz to ensure your SAMR knowledge.

How would you match the ACOT 5 stages and the SAMR model?  Do they directly link to one another?

ACOT 5 Stages (TIM)                       SAMR
Entry                                               Simulation
Adoption                                         Augmentation
Adaption                                         Modification
Appropriation                                  Redefinition

How would YOU compare the ACOT 5 Stages (TIM) and SAMR?  Explore your ideas using this Google Drawing.  You can't change the original, but you can make a copy of it and then modify it anyway you can imagine.

Technology Integration Matrix
The key to successful integration requires a system to integrate the research on Learning Environments with what has been learned about technology adoption. In 2005, the Florida Department of Education created their Technology Integration Matrix (TIM).  This is a matrix that uses a series of 5 steps in technology adoption that is similar to the ACOT set.  It also has a set of desired learning environment characteristics which include Active, Collaborative, Constructive, Authentic and Goal-Directed. 

USE THIS MATRIX: While the Florida TIM was the original, I would like to suggest that you savor the  Arizona flavor of this matrix. It is essentially the same but it has video examples sorted by grade level.  Past students have noted that this matrix is easier to understand and use.

Go see Arizona TIM and play around for a while to see what they have to offer.  You will find video examples of lessons and lesson plans in a variety of subjects.

NOTE: I have been looking for such a matrix that displays this in a corporate training format, but to no avail.

Here is an 11-minute video shared by the developers that they developed to explain it.  It provides a useful background for understanding TIM.  It is based upon the Florida version.

Here is a quiz to test your mastery of the Technology Integration Matrix.  There is no grade associated with it.  There is an explanation with your answers so you can learn from it - you can take it as many times as you want.  You may want to refer to this Table of Summary Descriptors for the TIM. 

All Together Now

Here is a Technology Integration slideshow referred to me by Michelle Cowell which covers SAMR, TIM, TPACK, and a variety of other thoughts about technology integration.  You can click on the link below or scan the QR code on the opening page.  Look for the recurring theme and consider the vocabulary that it provides for you.  How will you use this with your teachers, colleagues and administrators?

Add caption

Barriers to Technology Integration
Change is not always easy.  Even if an innovation can obviously improve learning situations, there are a number of things that can get in the way.  In some cases it has to do with institutional barriers that get in the way.  Review (look for the highpoints) an article, Barriers to Adopting Emerging Technologies in Education by Rogers.  This article looks at potential problems in the PK-12 as well as the University level schools.

Sometimes the problem is in the attitudes and belief systems of the teachers. This is another article which explores the Beliefs and Practices of teachers in the ACOT study.
Changes in Teacher's Beliefs and Practices in Technology-Rich Classrooms by Dwyer, Ringstaff and Sandholtz  (Note: This information won't really be used until next module, but I wanted you to have it to ponder for a while.)

Extra Resources: (Not Required)
Here are a few resources that I found that you might find useful when you are working with your colleagues and you are looking for materials to introduce SAMR and TIM.  (This is NOT additional required reading.  These are just some resources that could be useful.)
Made with Padlet

Your assignment will ask you to use the Technology Integration Model to assess lessons/learning experiences and decide how you could move them to the right along the technology axis in the TIM matrix.

You will submit the link to your Google Doc in the Module 3 submission forum. 

Refer to the Module 3 page in eLearning for specifics and rubric
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Tuesday, January 23, 2018

Module 2: Creating 21st Century Learning

The 21st Century Classroom may use technology to enable students to access tools and information, but it isn't what will enable us to reach the needs of our students. We will address our students' needs when we take the time to identify their needs and act accordingly.  

You may have seen Eric Sheninger at ITEC.  He is an accomplished educator who is presently the Director of Technology and Innovation at a school district in New Jersey.  He shares his perspective from a district perspective about what it takes to optimize education today.  How does this compare to what you are doing in your schools?

On a more teacher-oriented basis, here is Kayla Delzer who is sharing how she has reimagined learning and how she addresses it in her 3rd grade classroom.

Partnership for 21st Century Skills
It's been said that if Benjamin Franklin arrived in the 21st century, he would be overwhelmed by the mass of technology and humanity, but would feel "right at home" in a school classroom. Students' needs have changed but we typically have "21st century students being taught by 20th century teachers in 19th century schools."

English: Framework for 21st Century Learning
English: Framework for 21st Century Learning (Photo credit: Wikipedia)
Educators need to engage in a Framework for 21st Century Learning to prepare students with their necessary skills sets. Implementing such a framework can be complex. The Partnership offers a set of 21st Century Skills Implementation Guides. Here's one for Learning Environmentsreview this one and consider how you would  implement it your own school/district/corporation.  

What is the difference between 20th and 21st century schools? 
Standards are nice, but what is a 21st Century Education, really?  

Tony Wagner in his book, The Global Achievement Gap, states that there are 7 survival skills in Today's Global world.  These skills include:
  • Critical Thinking and Problem Solving
  • Collaboration across Networks and Leading by Influence
  • Agility and Adaptability
  • Initiative and Entrepreneurialism
  • Effective Oral and Written Communication
  • Accessing and Analyzing Information
  • Curiosity and Imagination
These skills can't be taught through textbooks.  They must be learned through active learning in the classroom by the students. Teachers cannot teach knowledge.  They can create situations through which students can learn.  

Learning in our schools must be "Teacher Lead, but Student Driven."

What is the Difference?

A good perspective on 21st Century Learning is shared in by baccalaureate.com. They consider the difference between 21st and 20th Century Learning. Their chart defines the difference on this page.  This discussion is well-considered. They provide a chart that compares 20th Century and 21st Century Learning.

The characteristics begin with:
  • 20th Century Education is teacher-centered with a fragmented curriculum, students working in isolation memorizing facts.
  • 21st Century Education is student-centered with real-live, relevant, collaborative project-based learning.
Take some time to review and digest the rest of the table.  Does it fit your idea of 21st Century Learning?  Does it fit your vision of what you want to see in your classrooms?

Spend some time reading and digesting these ideas throughout the rest of the page. There are many links that join a variety of resources. Follow all of the links and at least review their contents as you build your vision of a 21st Century Classroom.  

What is a 21st Century Educator?
These previous resources have addressed what a 21st Century Educator should do.  But how can they be identified?  Alan November is a writer and educator who has spent his life defining student-centered learning.  He updated interview question that a principal could ask to see if a prospective educator has an updated perspective of learning and education.  Review his questions and consider how your colleagues would answer them.  Consider how YOU would answer them. 

Interview Questions for New Teachers in 21st Century Schools
by Alan November

Identifying a 21st Century Classroom

Capturing, Sharing and Resolving Perplexity 
I recently discovered a Math Teacher who captured the essence of 21st Century Learning, Dan Meyer. Dan Meyer is not just any math teacher. He has defined his teaching at the art of dealing with perplexity. He begins his lessons by challenging his students by asking questions and posting problems.  Dan Meyer presented the opening Keynote at the CUE 2014 conference in March. Spend 45 minutes watching his presentation and you may develop a new perspective on teaching.  He talks about how to make learning meaningful for your students by making problems/learning perplexing instead of just engaging.

Characteristics of Student-Centered Classrooms (Iowa Core)
Is your classroom (or classrooms where you are taking classes) student-centered? One of the most important parts of creating 21st Century Classrooms is to make the students active learners in the process. But the question remains, HOW?  You will also find these 5 Characteristics of Effective Instruction useful as you begin to use the following Walkthrough assessment tool.

21st Century Classroom Walkthrough
Principal Shawn Holloway (Manson Northwest Webster in NW, Iowa) talks about assessing effective instruction in his classrooms using a walkthrough procedure. He has created a check sheet that he uses as a guide in his review of what he sees in classes as he Manages By Wandering Around.  

Here is a link to a Google Doc version of this MNW Walkthrough Form
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Tuesday, January 9, 2018

Module 1: Introduction to the Class and New Literacies

Welcome to your RWLD.   This RWLD is your resource page that includes an assortment of Readings, Watchings, Listenings and Doings. This multimedia approach was designed to improve the learning experience in multiple ways:
  • New Gen Learners (Millennial/Gen Y ages 18-35 and Gen Z ages 4 - 17) are able to process multiple forms of input. The RWLD approach provides content that includes text, video, audio, imagery and interactive.
  • Even older learners enjoy differing ways to absorb information. RWLDs address differentiated learning needs as well.
 Your assignments will be found in the eLearning website.  They may be mentioned in the RWLD, but the real instructions are on each of the assignment sheets.

This will be an exciting semester.  The modules will be released as time progresses, so you won't be able to review the whole course content at this introduction.  

Let's begin by reviewing some of the resources we will be using.   These are not your assignments for this week, they are just an opportunity for you to review some of what we will be using.
This week you will complete a quiz about the course workings as well as creating an Introduction where you will begin to think about Literacy.  As noted earlier, the specifics of these assignments are not here. They are in the Module #1 folder on eLearning.